For every 100 cars sold in the United States, one diesel engine car is sold. If you’re among this population of diesel-engine users, make sure that you know what type of diesel fuel pump you have.
- Common rail fuel injection pump. An electronically controlled diesel fuel supply system, this pump was developed to meet the strict 21st century exhaust gas regulations. It consists of a supply pump, common rail, electronically controlled injectors, a variety of sensors to detect the engine’s running condition, and a computer that controls all of these devices. The engine drives the supply pump, which produces high-pressure fuel. The common rail distributes the fuel to the injectors, which are mounted on each cylinder of the engine.
- Distributor (rotary) fuel injection pump. This diesel fuel pump is also controlled electronically by various sensors, an electronic control unit, and an actuator. Similar to the common rail pump, the sensors detect the engine’s running condition and send signals to the control unit. The actuator controls how much fuel is injected and its timing according to the signals it receives from the control unit. The control unit determines what signals it sends by calculating the optimum levels for the engine’s running condition.
- In-line fuel injection pump. One of two mechanically controlled diesel fuel systems, the in-line fuel injection pump matches the engine cylinders in their number of fuel pressure mechanisms. This pump is primarily used for medium to large trucks and construction machinery. A camshaft drives the fuel pressure and injection quantity control mechanisms within the pump body. The elements in that body follow an injection order to feed fuel to each engine cylinder.
- Distributor injection pump. Also a mechanically controlled diesel fuel pump, the distributor injection pump has just one fuel pressure mechanism, despite the number of engine cylinders the vehicle may have. The distributor is designed to follow the injection order to distribute pressurized fuel to each cylinder. The pump housing holds all of its components, including the governor, timer, and feed pump. As it is so compact, this pump is light and can operate at high speeds, making it perfect for small engines.
Knowing your vehicle’s exact type of diesel fuel pump is important in case it shows signs of needing replacement, which can include sudden surges in speed, rising car temperatures, decreased gas mileage, and more. If you experience any of these indicators, take a look at diesel pump manufacturers or fuel pump manufacturers to see if you need a replacement today.